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Indarapatra at Sulayman

In Filipino epics, Pre-colonial and Colonial Times on October 22, 2009 at 4:36 am

Salin ni Bartolome del Valle

(Synopsis )

Nang unang panahon ayon sa alamat, ang pulong Mindanaw ay wala ni kahit munting kapatagan. Pawang kabundukan ang tinatahanan ng maraming taong doo’y namumuhay. Maligaya sila sapagkat sagana sa likas na yaman.

Subalit ang lagim ay biglang dumating sa kanila na dati’y payapa.Apat na halimaw ang doo’y nanalot. Una’y si Kurita na maraming paa at ganid na hayop pagka’t sa pagkain kahit limang tao’y kayang nauubos.

Ang bundok Matutum ay tinirhan naman ng isang halimaw na may mukhang tao na nakakatakot kung ito’y mamasdan, ang sino mang tao na kanyang mahuli’y agad nilalapang at ang laman nito’y kanyang kinakain na walang anuman.

Ang ikatlo’y si Pah na ibong malaki. Pag ito’y lumipad ang bundok ng Bita ay napadilim niyong kanyang pakpak. Ang lahat ng tao’y sa kuweba tumatahan upang makaligtas. Sa salot na itong may matang malinaw at kukong matalas.

Ang bundok Kurayang pinanahanan ng maraming tao ay pinapaglagim ng isa pang ibong may pito ang ulo; walang makaligtas sa bagsik ng kanyang matalas na kuko pagkat maaaring kanyang natatanaw ang lahat ng tao.

Ang kalagim-lagim na kinasapitan ng pulong Mindanaw ay nagdulot-lungkot sa maraming baya’t mga kaharian; si Indarapatra na haring mabait, dakila’t marangal ay agad na nag-utos sa kanyang kapatid na prinsipeng mahal.

Prinsipe Sulayman, ako’y sumasamo ng inyong iligtas ang maraming taong nangangailangan ng tulong mo’t habag”

“O mahal na hari na aking kapatid, ngayon din lilipad at maghihiganti sa mga halimaw ang talim ng tabak.”

Binigyan ng isang singsing at isang ispada ang kanyang kapatid upang sandatahin sa pakikibaka. Kanyang isinasabit sa munting bintana ang isang halaman at saka nagsulit:

“Ang halamang ito’s siyang magsasabi ng iyong nasapit.”

Nang siya’y dumating sa tuktok ng bundok na pinaghaharian nitong si Kurita, siya ay nagmasid at kanyang natunghan ang maraming nayong walang kahit isang taong tumatahan.

“Ikaw magbabayad, mabangis na hayop!” yaong kanyang wika.

Di pa nagtatagal ang kanyang sinabi, nagimbal ang bundok at biglang lumabas itong si Kuritang sa puso’y may poot. Sila ay nagbaka at hindi tumigil hanggang sa malagot ang tangang hiningi niyong si Kuritang sa lupa ay salot.

Tumatag ang puso nitong si Sulayman sa kanyang Tagumpay kaya’t sa Matutum, ang hinanap naman ay si Tarabusaw; sa tuktok ng bundok ang kanyang namalas ang nakahahambal na mga tanawin:

“Ngayon di’y lumabas nag ika”y mamatay.”

Noon di’y nahawi ang maraming puno sa gilid ng bundok at ilang saglit pa’y nagkaharap silang puso’y nagpupuyos. Yaong si Sulayma’y may hawak na tabak na pinag-uulos. Ang kay Tarabusaw na sandata nama-sangang panghamablos.

At sa paghahamok ng dalawang iyong balita sa tapang, ang ganid na hayop sa malaking pagod ay napahandusay.

“Ang takdang oras mo ngayo’y dumating na,” sigaw ni Sulayman at saka sinaksak ng kanyang sandata ang pusong halimaw.

Noon di’y nilipad niyong si Sulayman ang bundok ng Bita. Siya’y nanlumo pagkat ang tahanan sa tao ay ulila; ilang sandali pa ay biglang nagdilim gayon maaga pa at kanyang natantong ang kalabang ibon ay dumarating na.

Bird_Monster_by_shellypants (deviantart.net)

Bird_Monster_by_shellypants (deviantart.net)

Siya ay lumundag at kanyang tianga ang pakpak ng ibon datapwa’t siya ring ang sinmang-palad na bagsakan niyon; sa bigat ng pakpak, ang katawan niya’y sa lupa bumaon kaya’t si Sulayman noon ay nalibing na walang kabaong.

Ang kasawiang ito ay agad nabatid ng mahal na hari pagkat ang halaman noon di’y nalanta’t sanga ay nangabali:

“Siya ay patay na!” ang sigaw ng kanyang namumutlang labi,

“Ang kamatayan mo’y ipaghihiganti buhay ma’y masawi.”

Nang siya’y dumating sa bundok ng Bita ay kanyang binuhat ang pakpak ng ibon. Ang katawang pipi ay kanyang namalas. Nahabag sa kanya ang kanyang bathala; biglang nagliwanag at ilang saglit pa ay nakita niya ang tubig na lunas.

Kanyang ibinuhos ang tubig na yaon sa lugaming bangkay at laking himala. Ang kanyang kapatid ay dagling nabuhay. Sila ay nagyakap sa gitna ng galak at ng katuwaan, saka pinauwi itong si Sulayman sa sariling bayan.

Sa bundok ng Kurayan ang kanyang sinapit ay agad hinanap ang ibong sa tao’y nagbibigay lagim a nagpapahirap. Dumating ang ibong kay laki ng ulo at ang kuko-matalas. Subalit ang kalis ni Indarapatra’y nagwagi sa wakas.

Sa kanyang tagumpay may isang diwatang bumating magalang:

“Salamat sa iyo butihing bayani na upd ng tapang, kaming mga labi ng ibong gahaman ngayo’y mabubuhay.”

At kanyang namalas ng maraming taong noo’y nagdiriwang.

Nabihag ang puso ng mahal na hari sa ganda ng mutya kaya’t sa naroon ay kanyang hiniling na lakip ng sumpa na sila’y ikasal. Noon di’y binuklod ng adhika ang kanilang puso,

“Mabuhay ang hari!” ang sigaw ng madla.

Ang tubig ng dagat ay tila hinigop sa kailaliman at muling lumitaw ang lawak ng lupang pawang kapatagan; si Indarapatra’y hindi na bumalik sa sariling bayan at dito naghari sa mayamang lupa ng pulong Mindanaw.

Maranao Epics: Darangan

In Filipino epics, Pre-colonial and Colonial Times on October 21, 2009 at 4:10 pm

Darangan, which is written in Maranao (Maranaw) language narrates the heroic feats of the Maguindanao people–highlighting the bravery and prowess of the skilled Moro warriors. Dr. Frank Laubach, an English scholar   discovered the wealth of the Maranao epics in 1930,  after spending two days with 2 leading Maranaos who chanted and sung the epics all day and night.

Darangan consists of several episodes, and three of these have been translated and have grown in popularity: Bantugan, Daramako-e Babay, and Indarapatra and Sulayman. Bantugan is fabled as “the ancestor of them all.”

  • Bantugan

Bantugan revolves around the life of Prince Bantugan, brother of King Madali, the ruler of Bumbaran. The poem opens with:

“Sa alwan imanto

Na aia dun mata tabu

Mara rampun a  adar

O inai Onan o kampong

Sa ilian a Bumbaran.”

(Humigit kumulang sa araw na ito ay may pangyayaring nakapagpapalungkot sa hari ng marilag na kaharian ng Bumbaran.

“Today there is something which gives the lovely King of Bumbaran a severe case of the blues.”- F. Laubach)

It is said that while Madali won many battles, Bantugan won many hearts for the younger brother is not only a marvelous fighter but also handsome and popular.  He has courted 50 of the loveliest princess in the world but the King does not allow him to marry. His popularity later makes the older brother, Madali jealous. He decrees that nobody shall ever be allowed to speak with his brother. Driven by loneliness, the Prince leaves for foreign lands. The wandering Bantugan evetually falls ill and dies at the Palace Gates of The-Land-Between-Two-Seas. Not knowing who this stranger is, the ruler of the place and his sister Princess Datimbang (Timbang) give shelter to the poor prince. Not knowing what to do, and fearing that the prince’s death is of their doing,  they summon the council to discuss what has to be done.  A parrot (loro) flies in and identifies the handsome man as Prince Bantugan of Bumbaran. He is then sent home to Bumbaran to tell King Madali of his brother’s fate. Upon learning this, the King leaves and journeys to the heavens. He speaks with the gods and baragains for his brother’s soul to be returned to earth. Meanwhile, Princess Datimbang brings Prince Bantugan’s body to Bumbaran. Upon King Madali’s return, Bantugan’s life has been restored and the king soon has a change of heart.

King Madali, overjoyed that his younger brother Bantugan has been brought back to life, calls for a celebration. But the story of his return has  already spread, and unknown to them, King Madali’s rival, King Miskoyaw has sent his army for a siege.[ Makalayan cries]:

“O datus! Go down and graze across the sea half-filled

with foreign vintas. Enemies are sweeping down upon us…” 

A battle takes place and Bantugan defends his people. However, Bantugan who has just been restored is eventually captured. It is said that he later regains his strength while held captive, and avenges his warrior’s death. Another celebration is held for this victory. The people of Bumbaran feasted and King Madali welcomes his brother back. Bantugan gets married with the loveliest princesses and lives happily in Bumbaran for several years.

  • Daramoke-a-Babay

Daramoke-a-Babay is a sequel to Bantugan. It recounts the bravery and might Bantugan. In the battles, no one equals his courage and fighting skills.

  • Indarapatra at Sulayman

A just, wise,  and kind ruler, Indarapatra of the Mantapuli Empire is known as the greatest of  all kings.  He is known to own an enchanted spear (sibat) which comes back to him as he wishes.He has taught his subjects how to farm, hunt for food, domesticate animals, fish, weave, and use plants as medicines. For many years they lived and prospered.

But their peace is broken by the news of the four terrible monsters that threaten the lives and brings havoc to a nearby region. It is said that these monsters-Kurita, Pah, Tarabusaw and another dreadful bird haunting Mt. Kurayan- devoured human beings as they wanted.  Death and destruction reign in the region, and the few people who live there lived in fear.  Moved with pity and compassion for what has happened to their neighbors, Indarapatra calls his brother, Prince Sulayman for help. When Sulayman hears the story, he promises to help the people, kill the monsters, and “the land shall be avenged.” King Indarapatra wishes his brother a safe and victorious journey and gives him a ring and sword.

In Mt. Bita, Sulayman slays the dreadful bird but unfortunately, its wing has fallen on him and crushed him. The news reaches King Indarapatra and leaves for his brother and to seek revenge. Upon waking up, Sulayman recounts what has befallen him. Meanwhile, Indarapatra continues with the promise of killing the horrible monsters and restoring peace in the land. In Mt. Kurayan (Gurayan) he kills the fourth monster. In his stay at this place, he chances upon a maiden (who happens to be a goddess or diwata). The maiden captures his heart and Indarapatra decides to marry her. There, he lives and rules over the vast kingdom.

(Although in some versions of the story, Indarapatra meets her while searching for the monster, and not after the battle. Further, the goddess disguises herself as an old woman; never leaving Indarapatra even as he battles with the monster.)

Ifugao Epics: Hudhud and Alim

In Filipino epics on October 19, 2009 at 1:43 pm

The Ifugao is  not only world-renowned for the 2000-year old rice terraces that are carved into the mountains,  which in 1995, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. They are also famous for their weaving, metal and wood work, numerous rites and prayers (called Baki), and their epics–Hudhud and Alim.

mon_banaue_rice_terraces

  • Hudhud

“Hudhud” features the characters Aliguyan (Aliguyon), Bugan and their families,  and the elements of the early civilization which rose in the mountain province.

Consisting of more than 200 episodes and chanted in Ifugao dialect, the Hudhod narrates the creation of the world and the journey of Aliguyan, a man from the village of Gonhandan, who is endowed with supernatural and limitless powers. One episode recounts his duel with Pumbakhayon, a warrior, who is of equal strength and agility, from a village called Daligdigan .

Until today, parts of Hudhud are chanted and sung in special occasions such as weddings, nightly vigils for the dead family member, harvest season, and local celebrations. The hud-hud include several titles, namely: “Hud-hud Bugan Nak Pangaiwan” during the rice harvest, “Bugan Nak Pangaiwan ad Gonhadan”, “Aliguyon ad Dayyagen”, “Alighuyon ad Hildungan”, “Hi Aliguyon ad Habiyan”, “Bugan nak Dulnuan nak Pangaiwan”, “Aliguyon Nak Amtalao”, “Kulbabang Bugan” and “Aliguyon an “Hi Duwog” chanted during death or “Binogwa”.

The United Nations Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared the Ifugao “Hudhud” as a “masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.”DSC09733

  • Alim
  • Alim explores the character of their god-bathala called Makanungan, the lives of their several gods, and deities, and their idea of “heaven.” Alim is sung as part of their ritual religious songs.

    One famous episode tells about a great flood. It is said that after the flood, the heroine Bugan, started a fire which Wigan from Amuyaw sees. Wigan and Bugan, thinking that there are only the two of them left on earth, traveled far and wide in search of people. Bugan later discovers that she is with a child. In fear of disgrace, she decides to commit suicide by jumping into the river. However, an old man with white beard appears and stops her from killing herself. This old man is actually their bathala, Makanungan, in disguise.

Filipino Epics

In Filipino epics, Pre-colonial and Colonial Times on October 19, 2009 at 12:29 pm

Reading about early forms of Philippine literature, one would come across a rich collection of Filipino epics. Although it is difficult to tell which of these is the oldest and the first to have been written, Filipinos had several epics handed down from generation to generation before the coming of the Spaniards. The verses were chanted and sung as part of their oral tradition. The diverse ethno-linguistic communities all over the country produced epic poems which are written in different regional languages and acclaim their own community heroes.

Like most epics, these are lengthy poems of adventures which revolve around supernatural events and heroic deeds. Christian missionaries translated and published a few of the Filipino epics. Unfortunately, plenty of the epics are not yet known since the groups’ language have perished even before they can be translated into Filipino. Among those which have survived and are better known include:

  1. Biag ni Lam-ang (Ilokano)
  2. Hudhod & Alim (Ifugao)
  3. Kabuniyan & Bendian (Ibaloi, Benguet)
  4. Kumintang (Tagalog)
  5. Ibalon & Aslon (Bikol)
  6. Maragtas, Haraya, Lagda & Hinilawod (Bisaya)
  7. Hari sa Bukid (Negros)
  8. Dagoy & Sudsud (Tagbanua of Palawan)
  9. Darangan (Muslim)
  10. Indarapatra at Sulayman (Maguindanao)
  11. Bidasari (Muslim)
  12. Parang Sabil/ Parang Sabir (Sulu Muslim)
  13. Tatuaang/ Tuwaang (Bagobo)
  14. Ulagingen at Seleh (Manobo)
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